Phonology of modern Greek - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Phonology of modern Greek - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Phonology of modern Greek - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A synthesis of phonology of modern Greek standard is presented.

Greek has a five-vowel system, e, i, o, or/. The vowel / a / is pronounced central open. The middle vowels / e / and / or / are pronounced between mediocre and half-open. The closed vowels / i / and / u / are pronounced as their respective cardinal vowels, approximately. Phonotactically, the vowels / e, i / function as prior vowels, and / a, or, u / as later vowels. The duration of the vowels is not controlled, but the vowels of the tonic syllables are pronounced longer than those of the unstressed syllables. Modern Greek lacks diphthongs; however, certain groups of vowels can be pronounced, either as two syllables, or as a single diphthong syllable. Thus, the most common diphthongs are / ai / and / oi / in words like πλάι ("next to, next to") or μοιρολόι ("elegy, epic") The Greek consonant system is less straightforward to describe, since there is considerable debate about what sounds to describe as separate phonemes and which ones as conditional allophones. [edit] groups of consonants.

Modern standard Greek lacks long consonants, although some south-eastern dialects (such as Cypriot or Rhodium).

Phonetic performance

The deaf stops / p /, / t /, and / k / are not aspired, and may be slightly sonorous rather than deaf in some dialects, especially in Crete and Cyprus.

The phonetic realization of / b, d, ɡ / (o / mp, nt, nk /, depending on the analysis) is variable. In the initial position of the word, they are simply pronounced as voiced stops. In the middle of the word they can be pronounced either as a more occlusive nasal sequence [mb, nd, ŋɡ], or as occlusive with a mild pre-nasalization [b, d, ɡ], or even simply as a stop. This is subject to considerable dialectal and sociolinguistic variation.

The nasals tend to modify their pronunciation according to the consonant that happens to them; Thus, a nasal velar [ŋ] appears (γ) before / k, ɣ, x /, and a nasal labiodental [ɱ] (μ) ante / f / o /v/.

La / r / can be pronounced either as a multiple-vibration [r], or as, in an intervocalic, simple vibrational position [ɾ].

[c] and [ɟ], in some dialects of Crete and the peninsula of Mani), are more palatalized and are pronounced as the affricates [ʨ] and [ʥ]. [s] and [z] are alminar-alveolar in several dialects, more like to [ɕ] and [ʑ].

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