There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease is the narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease and develops slowly over time. It is the most important cause by which people suffer heart attacks. Other types of heart problems can occur in the heart valves, or the heart may not beat well because of heart failure. Some people are born with heart disease. Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can not pump enough blood throughout the body. Heart failure does not mean that the heart has stopped or is about to stop working. It indicates that the heart can not pump blood the way it should. The weakening of the pumping capacity of the heart causes:

  • Accumulation of blood and fluid in the lungs
  • Accumulation of fluid in the feet, ankles and legs called edema
  • Tiredness and shortness of breath
The main causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and diabetes. Treatment includes treating the underlying cause of heart failure, medicines and heart transplantation if other treatments fail. (4)

Cardiotonics are drugs that produce improved cardiac treatment with lower oxygen consumption and the same energy expenditure, causing insufficient heart to regain contraction force, or positive inotropism, and mechanical efficiency. Most cardiotonic drugs are glycosides from the plant kingdom such as digital, strophthus.

These cardiotonic actions are performed through two physiological mechanisms. In the first, the drugs bind to the receptors that regulate the inotropic activity and the excitation-contraction coupling mechanisms, with inhibition of the sodium pump and membrane ATPase and the consequent release of calcium. With the addition of sodium during depolarization, the affinity to this cation is reduced, the ATP production is increased and the sliding of the actin and myosin filaments is increased due to the production of chemical bonds between them, with an improvement of the strength of myocardial contraction.

The second mechanism is fulfilled on the receptors that govern the accuracy, with simultaneous alteration of the permeability of the membrane. Independent inhibition of ASA and sodium potassium facilitates the production of a resting or prepotential potential that results in an ectopic pacemaker and cardiac rhythm disturbances.

Cardiotonics produce through their negative chromosome and positive inotropic chromium actions, improvement of the force of cardiac muscle contraction, alterations of the conductivity and the conduction, elevation of the arterial pressure in the heart insufficient, increase of the diuresis, local gastrointestinal effects irritative and central, and other effects on other devices and systems.

Glycosides are compounds that by hydrolytic decomposition give glucose and other or other substances, especially certain products of plant metabolism, such as digital glycosides. They are active poisons that can be used in medicine in small doses with a prudent administration.

Based on their chemical composition, several groups of glycosides are distinguished: (5)

Cardioglucosides, also called cardiotonic glucosides, are substances of great importance in the regulation of cardiac activity ); example of the glycosides of the digital. Based on their chemical structure, they are divided into cardenolides (digital, adonis, lily of the valley) and butadienols (root of eléboro).

Medicinally, cardioglucosides are spectacular substances in their effectiveness in heart conditions, in many cases even irreplaceable. They have tonic and strengthening action of the heart, that is, they increase their contractile force and regulate their rhythm. The most famous and effective plant that contains cardioglucosides is the digital one, also the following ones are distinguished: vernal adonis, onion, estrophanto, convaliate, cactus and asclepias.

Cardiotonics are found mainly in the leaves of plants of the families Scrofulariaceae, Apocynaceae, Liliaceae, Ranunculaceae and Moraceae.

genus Bufus, and in the wings of monarch butterflies, have been considered of interest because of their anticancer potential2. (1)

Onion is a food of great interest for its contribution to a healthy and balanced diet. At present new experiments are carried out with it, in order to determine its application to combat diseases.

Here are some recommended uses.

The onion is rich in properties that make it a general tonic and an appetizing stimulant.

Due to its content in vitamins A and C, it can treat all kinds of respiratory diseases.

It has antianemic properties, thanks to which it also supplies iron, phosphorus and mineral; so it supplies red blood cells and restores blood loss.

Protects against infections and regulates the digestive system, maintaining the balance of digestive enzymes and preventing intestinal parasites.

Protects against certain types of cancer, since very useful against Strontium-90 (radioactive toxic of the atmosphere). It also produces beneficial effects against numerous diseases such as tuberculosis, diabetes, nephritis, rheumatism, sciatica, gout, bone decalcifications, glandular senility, bronchitis, colds, insomnia, alcoholism and smoking, among others.

Eating raw onion salad with vegetable oil prevents sexual and chronic weakening. Also, that onion broth is beneficial to the prostate and kidneys. A group of doctors at the University of Newcastle claimed that boiled, fried or raw onions increase the ability of blood to dissolve internal clots, thereby preventing coronary thrombosis.

In short, we can say that onion plays an important role in nutrition and health. And every day new and beneficial effects are discovered on our lives. (3)

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