GIN Reforestation Group: 2012

GIN Reforestation Group: 2012

GIN Reforestation Group: 2012

These are the notes Jackie and I took on the link about deforestation in Ecuador that Luli posted on fb:

Causes and consequences of deforestation in Ecuador

by Jefferson Mecham

Tropical Forest Research Center - CIBT

Ecuador - May 2001 Place and diversity

The indigenous half of the country makes up part of the headwaters of the Amazon basin, Earth's largest and most biodiverse watershed and tropical rainforest.

-Northwest Ecuador contains the southern part of the Choco phytogeographic region (* 1) which, in an area much smaller than the Amazon, has a similar number of species

-the mosaic of habitats which explains the extraordinary concentration of species endemic to this region

- The two edges where the Andes mountains physicall and separate the Amazon and Choco floristic regions (the Andes-Amazon and Andes-Choco) are considered by many scientists as the most biodiverse areas on the planet.

- Ecuador occupies only 0.2% of the Earth's land surface, yet contains 10% of known plant species, which is the largest number per unit of any country in the world

- Despite its small size, Ecuador also ranks third in the number of amphibian species, fourth in birds, fourth in reptiles, fifth in monkeys, and sixth in the number of mammal species.

Place and diversity

- one of the world's highest rates of deforestation estimated at over 300,000 hectares (3%) per year (* 2)

interandean basin native vegetation

-has been practically eliminated since colonial (Eucalyptus and Pine) plantations.

- serious soil erosion problems and today only about 1 - 2% of its original forest cover remains

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- most of which have been destroyed in the last 50 years by logging, agroindustrial monocultures (banana, cocoa, coffee, African palm) and colonization

- cleared for huge plantations African palm

- Over 70% of the coastal mangroves have been cleared by the shrimp industry

- Since the early 1970's about 30% of the Ecuadorian Amazon has been deforested and / or polluted

- All indigenous cultures, such as the Cofan and Huaorani, have been placed in danger of extinction as a result of the oil industry and accelerated colonization facilitated by the oil roads. interandean region was the first to undergo widespread deforestation

GIN Reforestation Group: 2012
GIN Reforestation Group: 2012

- By this time most interandean forests had been cut and were unable to regenerate due to annual burning and the hords of sheep and cattle brought by the Spanish, which had also devastated the soil over large areas.

Andean agricultural context Due to deforestation, overgrazing, burning and intensive grain cultivation, the soil is exposed to the unchecked forces of rain and wind erosion. The average rate of soil loss is estimated at 20 times the acceptable maximum level as defined by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service.

-Thus both the quality and quantity of land available to the majority of people in the Andes is rapidly diminishing.

of Ecuador's food.

-Farmers agro-chemicals for infertile soil

-Preices rise, farmers move out Mass extinction on the Coast

- - - -

-During dry electricity shortages in Ecuador's major cities are a result

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-With the growing recognition of the national and global importance of Ecuador's biodiversity and the threats to it its integrity, the government established a system of protected areas during the 1970s.

- The total over 4 million hectares and representing over 10% of the national territory. policies and programs have failed to effectively protect and, in some cases, are directly related to these areas.

-Oil, mining and road-building activities permitted in or near protected areas have had devastating impacts

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-Contradictory laws and policies and lack of coordination between the different ministries in charge of implementing them hamper the development of a coherent national conservation strategy.

began to play an important role in conservation since the 1980s

-Endean NGOs have agreements with the government to administer public reserve

-others work in direct conservation through land acquisition and the formation of private reserves

b> · - contemporary forestry practice continues clearcutting of native forests and reforestation -when it occurs- consists of monoculture plantations of exotic tree species deserts as they provide in the habitat for the vast majority of native plant & amp; animal species, are inferior to native species for watershed protection and aquifer recharge, and cause soil degradation resulting in sterility after a few rotations

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