Grafting Grape Vines - eXtension

Eric Stafne, State University of Mississippi

Grafting is a technique of asexual propagation. This is a process where the stem of a particular variety is placed in the root system (pattern) of another variety. When a plant is grafted, the stem must contain many buds, but the union normally uses only a single bud. The only requirement for the graft to stick, is that the contact is made in the cambium. The cambium is a simple layer of cells located just below the cortex. This areas leads to formation of the graft joint, between the stem and the pattern. But always consider that this area can be easily dried so that you take appropriate measures to prevent this situation. Increasing the "cambial" contact (between the stem and the pattern) increases the chances of success of this technique.

Grafting success

Grafting is a slow process that requires patience and practice. The vine plants that are established in the vineyard are candidates to receive a graft when they are not economically profitable or when they are not appropriate for a certain site. The vine plants that will be grafted must be healthy and vigorous, without diseases or insects and relatively young. Harvesting wood stems is the same as picking cuttings. The stems must be collected when the plant is dormant for most grafts. However, active growth tissue may be used in some cases. There are several types of grafts that can be used, including:

Slit graft Bark graft Whip or whip graft

The cleft graft technique.

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1. Cut the top of the vine approximately 30 minutes before making the graft. 2. Divide the pattern with a razor or chisel. 3. Keep the split open and prepare the stems by cutting one of its v-shaped ends. 4. Insert a stem on each side by fitting it with the cambium. 5. Hold the area of ​​the split stem with a tape, use the graft compound to seal the parts you split to keep the excess moisture out and keep the moisture from within the lash. Placing a graft tape holding the stem that was split bark graft is also a relatively easy method and requires little ability to do so successfully. The bark must be slippery for this graft to work, so the best time to do so varies from one pattern to another.

The stem to be grafted should be latent. The bark grafting process is as follows:

1. Select the vine plant and cut the top of it. 2. Prepare the stem to be grafted by making a cut at the base end. 3. Make matching cuts on the pattern you will graft. 4. Insert the stem into the pattern and secure with a grafting tape or a band. 5. Cover the area and seal the cut with grafting wax.

Whip grafting is a common type of grafting for the propagation of different plants. To make this graft, use vine plant patterns 1 to 2 years old, with a diameter of up to ¾ inches. The size of the stem to be grafted must match the size of the pattern to be placed. This type of graft can be done in the field or in the greenhouse. The process of this type of graft is as follows:

Budding, this type of graft is somewhat different, in this type of graft only a yolk is used. This type of graft has several variations, but the T-bud graft (also called shield bud) is commonly used in fruit species. The yolk bud buds T must be mature and inactive, they must be taken from healthy and vigorous plants.

1. Remove the blade from the blade, leaving only the intact petiole, which will act as a handle. 2. Shave bud bud. You only need a small piece of wood. 3. In the pattern, make a vertical cut to separate the bark from the cambium, then make a perpendicular cut at the top of the vertical cut forming a "T." 4. Carefully peel the back of the bark exposing the part of the bud pocket. 5. Slide the yolk into the open pocket and cut off the top if necessary. 6. Wrap the graft well with graft tape, but leave the yolk exposed. 7. Once the healing process has begun, and when growth is observed, you can remove the pattern that is above the graft area.

There is a rapid graft technique where graft callus is placed under wet soil for 30 days, then allowed to grow in a greenhouse for 30 days, conditioned in a "mesh house" for 30 days and then planted in the vineyard from mid to late spring (May, further north). The vines produced by this system are called green grafts that grew on benches . However, summer temperatures, sunlight and low humidity can make this type of grafting very difficult to establish.

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