Not so summarized

Not so summarized

Not so summarized

For this reason the Egyptians acquired great skill and mastery, and their secrets are still unknown to us. The embalmers formed a social class separate from the others, since they were considered impure, although their services were necessary.

The embalming was of various kinds, according to the fortune of those interested. The most costly consisted of extracting the brain through hooks that were inserted through the nose; the viscera were removed by cuts practiced in the abdomen. Then the skull and the belly were filled with aromatic substances of secret composition, the necessary seams were practiced and the corpse was placed in salt for 60 days. Then, almost mummified, he washed and faked it with gummed cloths and placed it in a double wooden casket richly decorated with paintings and hieroglyphs and on the surface of which the face of the deceased was reproduced. This way of embalming, as well as other less expensive and simpler ones, have been very effective to preserve to the present day the numerous Egyptian mummies that are found exhibited in the various museums of the world.

In spite of the many variations and continuous enrichments recorded over the centuries, it can be said that some characteristics of Egyptian art have remained immutable. Among them, the fondness for the employment of the great masses and the gigantic proportions, the predominance of the straight line and the marvelous solidity of their constructions.

• Architecture. - The greatest and most monumental buildings of the ancient world are found in Egypt. Among them are worthy of mention their Funerary monuments and their Temples.

Mastabas: Simple constructions of rectangular shape, made with smooth stone and without more adornments. In one corner of it was a gravestone, which closed the mouth of a deep well full of stones and sand. At its bottom was the funeral chamber - with the coffin surrounded by various objects.

The pyramids: Since the mastabas did not protect the deceased from the greed of the bandits, the Egyptians devised increasingly grandiose and secure constructions. Thus they built the pyramids, of which more than a hundred are still preserved. Some of them marvel at its grandeur and have always been regarded as the prototype of the most gigantic human works. Among them are the ones built by the Pharaohs of the 4th Dynasty: the Great Pyramid, of Cheops, of 150 meters in height; the one of Kefrén, of 135, and the one of Micerinos, of 65.

The Great Pyramid took 30 years to build, and during all that time more than 100,000 men, recruited between slaves and prisoners of war, worked in it. The quarries of Arabia and Libya provided the abundant stone: more than two and a half million cubic meters.

Not so summarized
Not so summarized

Its edges are perfectly oriented towards the cardinal points and according to certain cosmographic formulas, which supposes that at the same time that it tomb, the Pyramid served as astronomical observatory. Inside there is a veritable labyrinth of chambers and galleries, many of them built to disorient thieves; and all, richly adorned with paintings and works of art.

A very interesting set of hypogeums built by the Pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty were discovered recently in the nearby mountains of Thebes, in the place called the Valley of the Kings. Among them, the hypogeum of Tutankhamun was famous, having been found almost intact in 1922 by archaeologist Howard Cárter.

They are equally famous for their solidity and dimensions, as well as for the perfect harmony of their lines. All Egyptian cities possessed their temples; but the most famous are those of Luksor and Karnac, built on the outskirts of Thebes, in honor of Amon and enriched splendidly by all the pharaohs.

The distribution of the Egyptian temples was, in general, very similar: they came to them by a wide avenue fringed by sphinxes, that is to say, statues of animals with the head of men. At the end of the avenue was the entrance, formed by two great turrets in the form of a truncated pyramid and walls completely covered with inscriptions and hieroglyphs. Next to these ramparts, on either side of the door, there used to be two colossal statues of the temple-building pharaoh, as well as two obelisks in one piece and fully engraved.

inner courtyard surrounded by galleries covered with roof supported by columns. Then there was the temple proper and it comprised:

The Hipóstila Room: A vast chamber divided into several ships by rows of thick columns. The central part of the ceiling was of greater height than the lateral ones.

The Hall of the Apparition: There ceremonies of the cult were performed, and only the nobles and characters had access of the court.

The Egyptian temples and, in general, all their constructions are true pages of history; in its walls and columns are engraved in hieroglyphs the main episodes of the life of the country.

- Sculpture - enjoyed the same characteristic qualities that Architecture: gigantic proportions and extraordinary consistency. It also had its own defects: rigid forms, lacking in expressiveness and loosening of limbs. In the bas-reliefs, artists do not apply the laws of perspective for the distribution of planes and represent, in a very simple way, the body and profile of the limbs and limbs. face. Among the most notable successes of Egyptian sculpture is the famous statue of the Writer of the Louvre Museum in Paris, and the polychrome bust of Queen Nefertiti in the Museum of Berlin.

Related news